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 HISTORY ESTABLISHED SINCE 1989
  • May 03, 1989
  • 1990
  • 1991
  • 1992
  • 1993
  • 1994
  • 1996
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015
  • 2016
  • 2017
  • 2018
  • 1989

    • National Club Council founded
    • Directory Listings are available nationally
  • 1990

    • NCC Reaches 3,000 listings
    • Directory now includes Record Stores.
  • 1991

    • NCC DJ Party
    • NCIAA’s first Party at the Key Club.
  • 1992

    • NCC Announces Plans to offer Events
    • Formation of the Promotions Department becomes a Huge Success.
  • 1993

    • NCC Launches Guest List Services
    • Club Managers Partner with NCC DJ’s and Promotions Department to offer free guest list services.
  • 1994

    • NCC breaks 10,000 Subscribers
    • Retail Vendor Membership is on the rise. DJ listings reach 6,000.
  • 1996

    • NCC Partners with Alpha Technologies to develop offsite Database System
    • NCC’s demonstrates its first official partnership and launches Data Services division.
  • 1997

    • NCC Forms Board of Directors
    • NCC Forms Board of Directors, the first 15 members of the group that will revolutionize the Club Industry.
  • 1998

    • NCC is On The Move.
    • NCC completes move to larger headquarters.
  • 1999

    • NCC becomes the National Club Industry Association of America
    • After 10 Years of serving the DJ and Club Community, the NCC Emerges as the first Association aimed at the Dance Club Community.
  • 2000

    • Sony Entertainment Joins the NCIAA
    • Sony Records is the first Mainstream Record Label to Join the NCIAA Membership Roster, with A&R VP Scott Mc Donald.
  • 2001

    • NCIAA Reaches Global Recognition
    • Membership Reaches combines listings of more than 27,500 Professional Club DJs, Club, Promoters, Record Labels, and DJ Gear Suppliers from more than 41 Countries.
  • 2002

    • NCIAA opens NYC office
    • NCIAA opens NYC office to reach more members.
  • 2003

    • NCIAA becomes Official Music Industry Trade Agent for Nightclub DJs
    • NCIAA to roll out full membership Services, including commission free booking services for pro level djs.
    • NCIAA Welcomes New Partners
    • NCIAA Partnership Division welcomes TMCentury, Ot’s Corp and Gemini to the NCIAA.
    • Record Pool developed with TrakHeadz
    • Trakheadz.com, signs letter of agreement to offer exclusive services to NCIAA DJ’s. NCIAA and Trakheadz begin developing the world’s first free Record Pool for Professional Club Djs, and integrating proprietary technology to offer Digitial Distribution Services to Record Labels.
    • Digital Club DJ (DCDJ) opens on Shoutcast as 2 Hour Chat Room Radio Service for Matchnet.com.
    • NCIAA Launches Internet Radio
    • NCIAA Broadcasts its first Show to more than 1300 hungry listeners from Americansingles.com chat rooms.
    • NCIAA Features live studio broadcasts of official NCIAA Djs around the world.
    • NCIAA’s DCDJ expands Programming
    • DCDJ expands programming hours to 8 hours per day.
    • NCIAA NetMix Radio launches FM Syndication & Programming
    • NCIAA NetMix Radio announces plans to provide a multi-channel, Syndication Service with high-quality digital broadcasts to FM Stations and College Radio Stations around the world.
  • 2004

    • DCDJ renames station to NetMix Radio and Launches NetMix FM & Extends Programming to 24 hours.
    • NetMix Radio introduces the internet radio world, a first of its kind Chat Media Player. Metawerx Technologies, Australia Developed the Chat Service for Anime Gamers & Personal Dating Services
    • NCIAA Acquires NetMix Radio and NetMix FM
    • Building an International Spirit of Music Cooperation with 3200 independent record labels
    • National Club Industry Association Takes Record Industry by Storm. Pro Club Djs from around the world vote for the Industry’s top Record Labels.
    • NetMix Radio becomes Official Station of the NCIAA.
    • NetMix Radio switches programming to “Real Time Broadcasting”
    • NCIAA Partners with Continental Airlines
    • Continental Airlines becomes the Official Carrier of the NCIAA.
    • EMI Australia & Blue Pie Records Join NCIAA
    • Blue Pie Records and EMI will begin distributing via the NCIAA-TrakHeadz Service.
    • NetMix Radio makes Top 100 Internet Dance Related websites in the world.
    • NetMix Radio Joins Forces with TrakHeadz.com and broadcasts Independent Artist Charts
    • NCIAA Breaking the Sound Barrier with Latin Music
    • Turitmo.net and the NCIAA expand services to Latin Club Djs.
    • NCIAA Reveals Boogie Oogie Competition
    • In Partnership with EMI Australia and Blue Pie Productions, the NCIAA announces the first Global Remix Competition open to Djs and artists worldwide.
    • NCIAA to Host 2005 Electronica Music Awards in Buffalo, NY
    • The Buffalo Convention Center will be the center of attention, as the NCIAA Hosts the Second Annual Electronica Music Awards.
  • 2005

    • Winter Music Conference Remix
    • Glideascope, the National Club Industry Association of America (NCIAA) and the MusicDish Network offers unsigned and independent artists the opportunity to remix music tracks.
  • 2006

    • NCIAA expands programs and benefits to members
    • Besides the obvious benefits to NCIAA members, the NCIAA will now include education, certification, insurance, licensing, booking, travel, and equipment programs.
  • 2007

    • NCIAA members treated like VIPs
    • NCIAA provides exlusive access to Events and Guestlists.
    • NCIAA expands messaging for members
    • Members can send messages within member network.
  • 2008

    • NCIAA to Vote in own election
    • NCIAA members can vote and rate members for weekly ranking.
    • NCIAA lets members share digital business cards
    • Members can create & share a personal profile and contact information for potential clients.
  • 2009

    • NCIAA lets members add Photography
    • NCIAA lets members assemble a photo album from their photos within the NCIAA system.
  • 2010

    • NCIAA merges Associations
    • NCIAA begins to combine Association’s content and resources from the NightlifeAssociation.org and NightclubAssociation.org.
  • 2011

    • NCIAA membership evolving from Association to interactive trade group
    • NCIAA begins to aggregate social media networks for nightlife content.
  • 2012

    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at Event Live Expo and Club+Venue Design Expo
    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at the KTV Disco Bar Expo in Guangzhou, China
    • NCIAA attends the Nightclub & Bar Expo and the TOP 100 CLUBS Awards
    • NCIAA attends the Nightclub & Bar Expo in Las Vegas, NV
    • NCIAA attends the EDMbiz Conference in Las Vegas, NV
    • NCIAA attends the Monaco International Clubbing Show, Awards, and DJ Festival in Monaco, France
  • 2013

    • NCIAA launches the new 2013 Digital Edition of the Nightlife Buyers Guide
    • NCIAA attends Event Live Expo in Los Angeles, CA2013
    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at the KTV Disco Bar Expo in Guangzhou, China
    • NCIAA attends the Nightclub & Bar Expo and the TOP 100 CLUBS Awards
    • NCIAA attends the Nightclub & Bar Expo in Las Vegas, NV
    • NCIAA launches the BETA version of the DRINK Festival in Los Angeles
    • NCIAA launches the nationwide TasteCrawlto promote local nightlife communities.
    • NCIAA launches induction process of inaugural Awards and Hall of Fame ceremonies to debut in 2014
    • NCIAA acquires the domains, begins research & development, and launches the induction process for 2014’s inaugural Awards and Hall of Fame ceremonies of the Nightlife Awards, Nightlife Hall of Fame, Nightclub Awards, Nightclub Hall of Fame, DJ Awards, DJ Hall of Fame, Dance Music Awards, Dance Music Hall of Fame, EDM Awards, Producer Awards, Promoter Awards, Bartender Awards, and the Drink Awards, to acknowledge the contributions of the nightlife professionals in our industry.
    • NCIAA renews agreement with Strategic Value Media for the 2014 Nightlife Buyers Guide
    • NCIAA updates the Nightlife Buyers Guide and Bar-Club-Buyer.com to promote suppliers to trade show attendees with 1,100 Advertisers so far2013
    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at Holiday Buying Show
    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at the former New York Bar Show, now known as the Holiday Buying Show and U.S. Drinks Conference in New York City, NY
    • NCIAA attends the Monaco International Clubbing Show, Awards, and DJ Festival in Monaco, France
  • 2014

    • The Nightlife Foundation and Nightlife Institute were established to oversee all operations including the inaugural Nightlife Awards, Nightlife Hall of Fame, Nightclub Awards, Nightclub Hall of Fame, DJ Awards, DJ Hall of Fame, Dance Music Awards, Dance Music Hall of Fame, EDM Awards, Producer Awards, Promoter Awards, Bartender Awards, and the Drink Awards, to acknowledge the contributions of the nightlife professionals in our industry.
    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at the KTV Disco Bar Expo in Guangzhou, China
    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at the Nightclub & Bar Expo and the TOP 100 CLUBS Awards
    • NCIAA attends and exhibits at the Nightclub & Bar Expo in Las Vegas, NV
    • NCIAA supports L.A.’s Cinco De Mayo Festival
    • NCIAA assists in marketing the Cinco De Mayo Festival in Los Angeles
    • NCIAA supports the Hollywood Music Week
    • NCIAA assists in introducing collaboration between venues, artists, djs, promoters and event producers.
    • NCIAA approached to co-produce the 1st American Nightlife Awards to honor those Americans who have contributed to the Nightlife Industry.
    • European Nightlife Association is formed
    • The European Nightlife Association is created in Paris to unify the trade unions ‘UMIH’ (France), ‘SILB FIPE’ (Italy), ‘Ocio de Ibiza’ (Spain), ‘FECASARM’ (Spain) and ‘Spain Nightlife’ (Spain). Mr. Maurizio Pasca as president of the European Nightlife Association and president of ‘SILB FIPE’, Mr. Laurent Lutse, president of ‘UMIH’, Mr. Carlos Caballero, president of ‘Spain Nightlife’, Mr. Christian Braun, president of ‘Ocio de Ibiza’, and Joaquim Boadas, president of ‘FECASARM’.
    • European Nightlife Association requests to combine resources and organizations to form the International Nightlife Association, the International Nightlife Congress and produce the International Nightlife Awards in Ibiza, Spain.
    • Nightlife Association merger with International Nightlife Association is approved to expand our programs worldwide (the Nightlife Foundation’s Nightlife Association merges the content, resources and programs to establish the International Nightlife Association; to jointly carry out actions and programs that will defend the collective interests of the nightlife industry worldwide. The 2nd International Nightlife Congress will be held in Ibiza, Spain. The Inaugural Nightlife Hall of Fame Inductees and the Nightlife Awards winners will be announced, to acknowledge the contributions of the nightlife professionals in our industry.)
  • 2015

    • International Nightlife Association hold press conference to promote their “Secure Nightlife Venue” program
    • TÜV Rheinland, a full-service inspection, testing and certification company, has partnered with the International Nightlife Association, a union of nightlife sectors in America, Asia, Europe and Mexico representing 80,000 businesses worldwide. The partnership will create the first-of-its-kind international security protocol called “SECURE NIGHTLIFE VENUE.” The program unifies security measures for nightlife leisure establishments around the world to improve the safety of their patrons.
    • Nightlife Association attends and exhibits at the Nightclub & Bar Expo and the TOP 100 CLUBS Awards
    • Nightlife Association attends and exhibits at the Nightclub & Bar Expo in Las Vegas, NV
    • International Nightlife Association joins the (UNWTO) United Nations World Tourism Organization in Medellin, Columbia to represent the nightlife & club industry worldwide in 12 member countries.
    • 2nd biennial International Nightlife Congress was held in Ibiza, Spain. The Inaugural International Nightlife Awards announced the Top 100 Clubs in the World, to acknowledge the contributions of the nightlife professionals in our industry.
  • 2016

    • The 1st Asian Club & Bar Awards was held in Macau, China. The Inaugural Asian Club & Bar Awards announced the Top Club in Asia, to acknowledge the contributions of the nightlife professionals in our industry. Maurizio Pasca and JC Diaz, were among the judges. Reed Exhibitions and MICS produced the event.2016
    • The 3rd International Nightlife Congress was held in Las Vegas, NV at the World Market Center.
  • 2017

    • The 4th International Nightlife Congress was held in Ibiza, Spain at the Hard Rock Hotel.
  • 2018

    • The 5th International Nightlife Congress was held in Bogota, Colombia at Expobar.
    • Nightlife Association joins its forces with LA Fund in order to implement new technology solutions into the nightlife industry

HISTORY OF THE NIGHTCLUB

Early history 1900-

From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox. During US Prohibition, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New York’s 21 ClubCopacabanaEl Morocco, and the Stork Club. These nightclubs featured big bands (there were no DJs).

In Occupied France, jazz and bebop music, and the jitterbug dance were banned by the Nazis as decadent American influences, so as an act of French resistance, people met at hidden basements called discothèques where they danced to jazz and swing music, which was played on a single turntable when a jukebox was not available. These discothèques were also patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous. There were also underground discotheques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids.

In HarlemConnie’s Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences. Before 1953 and even some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or mostly live bands. In Paris, at a club named Whisky à Gogo, founded in 1947, Régine in 1953 laid down a dance-floor, suspended coloured lights and replaced the jukebox with two turntables which she operated herself so there would be no breaks between the music. The Whisky à Gogo set into place the standard elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the coffee bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing and the most famous, at least on the continent, was Les Enfants Terribles at 93 Dean St. These original discothèques were nothing like the night clubs, as they were unlicensed and catered to a very young public – mostly made up of French and Italians working illegally, mostly in catering, to learn English as well as au pair girls from most of western Europe. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabel’s, in Berkeley Square, London. In 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated. However, the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs, and the nightclub did not attain mainstream popularity until the 1970s disco era. Sybil Burton, former wife of actor Richard Burton, opened the “Arthur” discotheque in 1965 on East 54th Street in Manhattan on the site of the old El Morocco nightclub and it became the first, foremost and hottest disco in New York City through 1969.

1970s: Disco

By the late 1970s many major US cities had thriving disco club scenes which were centered around discothèques, nightclubs, and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played “… a smooth mix of long single records to keep people ‘dancing all night long'” Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music.

Some cities had disco dance instructors or dance schools which taught people how to do popular disco dances such as “touch dancing”, the “hustle” and the “cha-cha-cha“. There were also disco fashions that discothèque-goers wore for nights out at their local disco, such as sheer, flowing Halston dresses for women and shiny polyester Qiana shirts for men. Disco clubs and “…hedonistic loft parties” had a club culture which had many Italian-AmericanAfrican Americangay and Hispanic people.

In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving drug subculture, particularly for recreational drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine (nicknamed “blow”), amyl nitrite “poppers“, and the “…other quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and turned one’s arms and legs to Jell-O”.  The “massive quantities of drugs ingested in discothèques by newly liberated gay men produced the next cultural phenomenon of the disco era: rampant promiscuity and public sex. While the dance floor was the central arena of seduction, actual sex usually took place in the nether regions of the disco: bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, and so on. In other cases the disco became a kind of “main course” in a hedonist’s menu for a night out.”

Famous 1970s discothèques included “…cocaine-filled celeb hangouts such as Manhattan‘s “Studio 54“, which was operated by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager. Studio 54 was notorious for the hedonism that went on within; the balconies were known for sexual encounters, and drug use was rampant. Its dance floor was decorated with an image of the “Man in the Moon” that included an animated cocaine spoon. Other famous 1970s discothèques included “Studio One” in Los Angeles; in New York City included “Leviticus”, “Xenon“, “The Loft“, the “Paradise Garage“, and “Aux Puces“, one of the first gay disco bars. In San Francisco, there was the Trocadero Transfer, the I-Beam, and the End Up. “The Library” in Atlanta, the library Disco chain had locations in New City, Syracuse N.Y., Pittsburgh Pa., a short lived version in Denver, Co. as well as Atlanta Ga.

By the early 1980s, the term “disco” had largely fallen out of favour in most of the English-speaking world.

1980s New York, London & Europe

During the 1980s, during the New Romantic movement, London had a vibrant nightclub scene, which included clubs like The Blitzthe Batcave, the Camden Palace and Club for Heroes. Both music and fashion embraced the aesthetics of the movement. Bands included Depeche ModeThe Human LeagueDuran DuranBlondieEurythmics and Ultravox.Reggae-influenced bands included Boy George and Culture Club, and electronic vibe bands included Visage. At London nightclubs, young men would often wear make-up and young women would wear men’s suits.

The largest UK cities like Leeds (The Orbit), NewcastleLiverpool (Quadrant Park and 051), SwanseaManchester (The Haçienda) and several key European places like Paris (Les Bains Douches), Ibiza (Pacha), Rimini etc. also played a significant role in the evolution of clubbing, DJ culture and nightlife.

Significant New York nightclubs of the period were AreaDanceteria, and The Limelight.

The transition from the late-1970s disco styles to the early-1980s dance styles was marked primarily by the change from complex arrangements performed by large ensembles of studio session musicians (including a horn section and an orchestral string section), to a leaner sound, in which one or two singers would perform to the accompaniment of synthesizer keyboards and drum machines.

In addition, dance music during the 1981–83 period borrowed elements from blues and jazz, creating a style different from the disco of the 1970s. This emerging music was still known as disco for a short time, as the word had become associated with any kind of dance music played in discothèques. Examples of early 1980s dance sound performers include D. TrainKashif, and Patrice Rushen

During the first years of the 1980s, the disco sound began to be phased out, and faster tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied by guitar and simplified backgrounds, moved dance music toward the funk and pop genres. This drift from the original disco sound is called post-disco. In this music scene there are rooted sub-genres, such as italo-discotechnohousedance-popboogie, and early alternative dance. During the early 1980s, dance music dropped the complicated melodic structure and orchestration that typified the disco sound.

In 1982, Afrika Bambataa released the single “Planet Rock“, which incorporated electronica elements from Kraftwerk‘s “Trans-Europe Express” and “Numbers” as well as YMO‘s “Riot in Lagos”.

The Planet Rock sound also spawned a hip-hop electronic dance trend, electro music, which included songs such as Planet Patrol‘s “Play at Your Own Risk” (1982), C Bank’s “One More Shot” (1982), Cerrone‘s “Club Underworld” (1984), Shannon‘s “Let the Music Play” (1983), Freeez‘s “I.O.U.” (1983), Midnight Star‘s “Freak-a-Zoid” (1983), Chaka Khan‘s “I Feel For You” (1984).

 

1990s and 2000s

In Europe and North America, nightclubs play disco-influenced dance music such as house musictechno, and other dance music styles such as electronica and trance. Most nightclubs in the U.S. major cities that have an early adulthood clientele, play hip hop,dance-pop, house and/or trance music. These clubs are generally the largest and most frequented of all of the different types of clubs. The emergence of the “superclub” created a global phenomenon, with Ministry of Sound (London), Cream (Liverpool) and Pacha (Ibiza).

During the mid-1980s, techno music emerged from the Detroit club scene. Being geographically located between Chicago and New York, Detroit techno artists combined elements of Chicago house and New York garage along with European imports. Techno clubs are especially popular around the world since early 1990s. BerghainBunker and Tresor in Berlin, Omen and Cocoon in Frankfurt, Distillery in Leipzig, Tunnel Club in HamburgWarehouse in Chicago and The Haçienda in Manchester.

In most other languages, nightclubs are referred to as “discos” or “discothèques (German: Disko or Diskothek; French: discothèque; ItalianPortuguese and Spanish: discoteca, antro (common in Mexico only), and boliche (common in Argentina only), discos is commonly used in all others in Latinamerica). In Japanese ディスコ, disuko refers to an older, smaller, less fashionable venue; while クラブ,  kurabu refers to a more recent, larger, more popular venue. The term night is used to refer to an evening focusing on a specific genre, such as “retro music night” or a “singles night.” In Hong Kong and China, night club is used as a euphemism for a hostess club, and the association of the term with the sex trade has driven out the regular usage of the term.

DJ culture

The rising popularity of disco came in tandem with developments in turntablism and the use of records to create a continuous mix of songs. The resulting DJ mix differed from previous forms of dance music, which were oriented towards live performances by musicians. This in turn affected the arrangement of dance music, with songs since the disco era typically containing beginnings and endings marked by a simple beat or riff that can be easily slipped into the mix.

A recent trend in the North American, Australian and European nightclub industry is the usage of video. VJs (“video jockeys”) mix video content in a similar manner that DJs mix audio content, creating a visual experience that is intended to complement the music.

 

Rave culture

A rave is a large party or festival featuring performances by disc jockeys (colloquially called DJs) and occasionally live performers playing electronic music, particularly electronic dance music (EDM). Music played at raves include housetrancetechnodrum and bassdubstep and other forms of electronic dance music with the accompaniment of laser light showsprojected imagesvisual effects and smoke machines.

Rave culture originated mostly from acid house music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States. After Chicago house artists began experiencing overseas success, it quickly spread to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and the rest of the United States.

In the late 80s, rave culture began to filter through from English ex-pats and DJs who would visit Europe. However, rave culture’s major expansion in North America is often credited to Frankie Bones, who after spinning a party in an aircraft hangar in England helped organize some of the earliest known American raves in the 1990s in New York City called “Storm Raves” which maintained a consistent core audience. Coinciding at the same time, were the “NASA” parties in NYC by DJ Scotto. 

In late 80s and early 90s, there was a boom in rave culture in the Bay Area. At first, small underground parties sprung up all over the SOMA district in vacant warehouses, loft spaces, and clubs like DV8 and 1015 Folsom, and basement of Jessie Street that had permits to run to 6am as long as no alcohol was served.

After 1993, the main outlet for raves in the UK were a number of licensed venues, amongst them Helter Skelter, Life at Bowlers (Trafford Park, Manchester), The Edge (formerly the Eclipse [Coventry]), The Sanctuary (Milton Keynes) and Club Kinetic. In London, itself, there were a few large clubs that staged raves on a regular basis, most notably “The Laser Dome”, “The Fridge”, “The Hippodrome”, “Club U.K.”, and “Trade.” “The Laser Dome” featured two separate dance areas, “Hardcore” and “Garage”, as well as over 20 video game machines, a silent-movie screening lounge, replicas of the “Statue of Liberty”, “San Francisco Bridge”, and a large glass maze. At capacity “The Laser Dome” held in excess of 6,000 people. Events proved to be one of the main forces in rave, holding legendary events across the north-east and Scotland. Initially playing Techno, Breakbeat, Rave and drum and bass, it later embraced hardcore techno including happy hardcore and bouncy techno. Judgement Day, History of Dance, and now REGENeration continued the Rezerection legacy. Scotland’s clubs, such as the FUBAR in StirlingHangar 13 in Ayr, and Nosebleed in Rosyth played important roles in the development of these dance music styles.

In the 1990s, one of the most influential Rave organisers / promoters in America was San Diego’s, Global Underworld Network. They were made famous for organizing and throwing the OPIUM and NARNIA raves that reached in size of 60,000 plus people in attendance, a feat unheard of at that time. Narnia which would become famous for a morning hand holding circle of unity was featured on MTV and twice in LIFE magazine being honored with Event of the Year in 1995.

Raves had tens of thousands of attendees, youth magazines featured styling tips, and television networks launched music magazines on House and Techno music. The annual Love Parade festivals in Berlin (in the Metropolitan Ruhr area onwards) attracted more than one million party-goers between 1997 and 2000. The year 2000 saw the demise of massive raves as curfews were placed on permits handed out to promoters throwing parties. Instead of all night and into the next day, parties now had to end at 2 a.m. Two of the largest venues closed down soon after, and there wasn’t enough momentum to sustain parties that catered to tens of thousands of people.

 

2010s

The beginning of the 21st century saw financial growth of the nightclub industry in the United States. In 2010, there were nearly 45,000 bars and nightclubs across the country.

Exclusive Boutique Nightclubs

Large cosmopolitan cities that are home to large affluent populations (such as AtlantaChicagoLos AngelesMiamiNew York City, and London) often have what are known as exclusive boutique nightclubs. This type of club typically has a capacity of less than 200 occupants and a very strict entrance policy, which usually requires an entrant to be on the club’s guest list. While not explicitly members only clubs, such as Soho House, exclusive nightclubs operate with a similar level of exclusivity. As they are off limits to most of the public and ensure the privacy of guests, many celebrities favor these types of clubs to other, less exclusive, clubs which do not cater as well to their needs. Another differentiating feature of exclusive nightclubs is, in addition to being known for a certain type of music, they are known for having a certain type of crowd (for instance, a fashion-forwardaffluent crowd or a crowd with a high concentration of fashion models. Many exclusive boutique clubs market themselves as being a place where one can socialize with models and celebrities. Affluent patrons who find this marketing message appealing are often willing to purchase bottle service at a markup of several times the retail cost of the liquor. London’s most exclusive boutique nightclubs include Amika, Cirque Du Soir, Project, The Box, and The Rose Club. These venues are frequently visited by an array of A-List celebrities from the fashion, film, and music industries. All are located in London’s prestigious Mayfair, except Cirque Du Soir and The Box, which are both located in London’s sex capital, Soho, and the both have a more risque theme.

REFERENCE SOURCE:

Wikipedia.org

  1.  “The birth of disco”. OXford Dictionaries.

  2.  “Rock and Roll is a State of Mind”

  3.  TIME magazine. (May 14, 1965). Brewster, B., Broughton, F..Last Night a Disc Jockey Saved My Life, Grove Press, 2000, pp.62 – 64. ISBN 0802136885

  4.  Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (July/August 2000). “The body and soul of club culture”. UNESCO Courier 53. Archived from the original on 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2007-07-24.

  5.  Lawrence, Tim (2005-06-14). “Reviews of Love Saves the Day”. Blog. Archived from the original on 2007-07-12. Retrieved 2007-07-24.

  6.  Gootenberg, Paul 1954- Between Coca and Cocaine: A Century or More of U.S.-Peruvian Drug Paradoxes, 1860-1980 Hispanic American Historical Review – 83:1, February 2003, pp. 119-150. He says that “The relationship of cocaine to 1970s disco culture cannot be stressed enough; …”

  7.  “Nitrites”. DrugScope. Retrieved 2007-07-24. “Amyl, butyl and isobutyl nitrite (collectively known as alkyl nitrites) are clear, yellow liquids which are inhaled for their intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally came as small glass capsules that were popped open. This led to nitrites being given the name ‘poppers’ but this form of the drug is rarely found in the UK. The drug became popular in the UK first on the disco/club scene of the 1970s and then at dance and rave venues in the 1980s and 1990s.”

  8. a b Braunstein, Peter (November 1999). “Disco”American Heritage Magazine 50 (7). Retrieved 2007-07-24.

  9.  Miller, Daniel (2001). Consumption: critical concepts in the social sciences. Taylor & Francis. p. 447. ISBN 978-0-415-24269-1.

  10.  “Pell Research Report on Bars and Night Clubs – cited with permission”. Pellresearch.com.

  11.  “Is Ladies’ Night illegal? Nightclub entry policy and the Equality Act”. Law Think. 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2013-03-09.

  12.  “Carpenter v. Limelight Entertainment Ltd. (1999), C.H.R.R. Doc. 99-197 B.C. Human Rights Tribunal”.

  13.  “NYC Clubs and lounges – Your Guide to Exclusive New York Nightlife”. Socialyeti.com. Retrieved 2013-03-09.

  14.  “IOL: Throb trial to start on Monday”.

  15.  “Schnittverletzungen: Mann nach Kopfsprung in Disco-Pool verblutet – SPIEGEL ONLINE”. Spiegel.de. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2013-03-09.

  16.  “Количество жертв пожара в пермском клубе возросло до 155 человек” (in Russian). Interfax.ru. 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2010-01-17.

  17.  “СКП: В результате пожара в Перми пострадали 234 человека” (in Russian). «Взгляд» — деловая газета. 2009-12-09. Retrieved 2009-12-10.

  18.  http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/7906727-budapests-west-balkan-mass-panic-kills-3-ladies

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